The relevant threshold has changed as time passes.

There is no proof that the beneficial effect of instant antiretroviral therapy differed relating to age, sex, race, region of the world, CD4+ count, viral load, or risk factors for serious non-AIDS diseases. In contrast to our study, prior randomized studies enrolled patients with lower CD4+ counts and compared immediate antiretroviral therapy with deferred therapy when counts reached 250 or 200 cells per cubic millimeter.5-8 These trials established that antiretroviral therapy should be started prior to the CD4+ count declined to 250 cells per cubic millimeter. In our study, the advantage of instant antiretroviral therapy over deferred therapy was quantified, and protection was assessed across different outcomes, including a different set of non-AIDS circumstances.Olli Ikkala, Ph.D., described the new buoyant material, built to mimic the drinking water strider’s long, thin foot and made from an ‘aerogel’ made up of the small nano-fibrils from the cellulose in vegetation. Aerogels are so light that a few of them are denoted as ‘solid smoke.’ The nanocellulose aerogels also have remarkable mechanical properties and are flexible. ‘These materials have really spectacular properties that may be used in practical ways,’ said Ikkala. He is with Helsinki University of Technology in Espoo, Finland.